Second Grade Curriculum
In second grade most children practice the skills learned in earlier grades and begin to use them with ease. Some children who were not completely ready to understand all of the material introduced in first grade may now be ready to master it. Second graders apply what they have learned about the meanings of letters and numbers to more complicated material, and begin to develop their analytical abilities even further.
Your child's progress will be reported through conferences and Standard-Based report cards. The report cards will indicate progress on the objectives identified in the Second Grade curriculum. Please find below a sampling of the Holy Cross Academy Second Grade curriculum. For a complete list of the standards covered in Second Grade, please click on the Curriculum Map for Second Grade, located on the left side of this page.
The objective of character education at Holy Cross Academy is to shape, nurture, and develop the total child. Character development improves school and classroom climate by focusing on basic principles of character. This objective is achieved through daily actions and integration of the following principles of character education into the curriculum at all levels.
Good Judgment - To choose worthy goals and set proper priorities; to think through the consequences of your actions; to base decisions on practical wisdom and good sense.
Responsibility - To be dependable in carrying out obligations and duties; to show reliability and consistency in words and conduct; to be accountable for your own actions; to be committed to active involvement in your community.
Respect - To show high regard for authority, for other people, for self, for property, and for country; to understand that all people have value as human beings.
Good Citizenship - Obeying the laws of the nation and this State; abiding by school rules; and understanding the rights and responsibilities of a member of a republic.
Service to Others / Kindness - To be considerate, courteous, helpful, and understanding of others; to show care, compassion, friendship, and generosity; to treat others as you would like to be treated.
Courage - To have the determination to do the right thing even when others don't, and to have the strength to follow your conscience rather that the crowd.
Self-Discipline - To demonstrate hard work and commitment to purpose; to regulate yourself for improvement; to refrain from inappropriate behaviors; to be in proper control of your words, actions, impulses, and desires; and to do your best in all situations.
Perseverance - To be persistent in the pursuit of worthy objectives in spite of difficulty, opposition, or discouragement; to exhibit patience and be willing to try again when confronted with delays, mistakes, or failures.
Integrity - To have the inner strength to be truthful, trustworthy, and honest in all things; to act justly and honorably.
Responsibility for School Safety - Helping to create a harmonious school atmosphere that is free from threats, weapons, and violent behavior; cultivate an orderly learning environment in which students and school personnel feel safe and secure; and encourage the resolution of disagreements through peaceful means including peer mediation.
Holy Cross Academy's religious education is an on-going process to provide spiritual formation and instruction for all children. We believe that we are called to respond to Christian witness throughout our lives. The children will act in accordance with the basic doctrines of the Catholic Church while experiencing the faith community within our school.
The rosary will be prayed frequently throughout the year, but especially in October and May (the months of Mary). Students will attend Mass weekly, either as a class or with the entire school. Service projects are built into the overall curriculum for each grade level. A specialized focus will be given to Mission and Vocation Awareness.
- Recognize God as Creator and Father
- Identify and explain moral responsibility and respect as members of the family of God.
- Identify the parts of the Mass and the articles and vestments used during Mass
- Planning and implementation of the celebration of the Mass
- Explain the concepts related to the Sacrament of Reconciliation (sin vs. accident, sorrow and contrition, confession, absolution, penance, grace, forgiveness, examination of conscience)
- Demonstrate knowledge of the relation between Reconciliation to healing and forgiveness
- Participation in the Sacrament of Reconciliation
- Express an understanding of Eucharist in terms of a meal and a sacrifice, and experience the Real Presence of Jesus
- Read, listen to, and summarize various scripture stories related to the Sacraments of Reconciliation and Eucharist
- Demonstrate an awareness of God and an appreciation for His creation
- Participation in daily prayer both as a class and an individual
- Demonstrate an appreciation for the daily 'life of the Saint'
- Demonstrate knowledge of prayers (Our Father, Hail Mary, Glory Be, Sign of the Cross, Grace before meals, Spiritual Adoption Prayer, rosary, and Act of Contrition)
- Demonstrate respect for others in their classroom
- Retell, act out, and/or illustrate Biblical stories (Lost Sheep, Prodigal Son, Last Supper, Road to Emmaus, and Loaves and Fishes)
- Demonstrate knowledge of the Ten Commandments
- Demonstrate respect and proper behavior while at Mass
- Discuss and participate in seasonal events of the Church year
- Recognize different Church celebrations
- Apply the Church teachings to their daily lives
The second grade language arts program focuses on the broad areas of oral language, reading, writing, and word study. Students will be introduced to a wide variety of fiction and nonfiction literature which will serve as a basis for instruction and practice in phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, and writing.
- Read and comprehend different types of stories appropriate for second grade (fantasy, realistic fiction, poetry, fable, legend, informational, and biographical)
- Read fluently using the punctuation, appropriate expression, intonation, and an appropriate rate
- Use a variety of reading comprehension strategies (i.e. predicting, inferring, making connections, drawing conclusions)
- Monitor and self correct errors while reading
- Choose appropriate level books and reads independently for 20 minutes daily to increase vocabulary, concepts, and reading stamina
- Read diagrams, charts, and maps
- Read to answer specific questions
- Respond to literature orally and in writing.
- Understand book concepts (i.e. front, back, first, last, word, letter, title, cover page, table of contents, index, glossary)
- Demonstrate the use of reading strategies (i.e. looking a picture, finding a chunk of letters within the word that is already known, rereading, and asking, "What would make sense?")
- Discuss the author's purpose (to teach, to share, to entertain)
- Identify and generate antonyms, synonyms, and words with multiple meanings
- Use of a grade-appropriate dictionary
- Identify main idea and topic of a text
- Identify story elements by recalling facts and details from the text
- Compare and connect information across informational text
- Describe causes and effects of actions or events
- Discuss similarities and differences in events and characters across stories
- Summarize /retell the story using characters (including main), setting, sequence of events, problem/solution, plot, and author's purpose, while relating the story to life experiences
- Differentiate between fiction and non-fiction
- Identify beginning, middle, and end of story
- Compare and contrast two works (i.e. by different authors, the same author, and/or illustrator, genre, theme)
Written and Oral Communication
- Write for a variety of reasons to various audiences using different formats (stories, reports, etc)
- Generate and focus on a topic about which to write
- Stay on topic when writing
- Compose a rough draft that focuses on major ideas and details, revises written work focusing on aspects of writing such as organization, word choice, and clarity, edits written work to use correct grammatical conventions, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation
- Adds details to writing to make it more interesting
- Create 20 or more written pieces
- Form upper-case and lower-case letters correctly and use appropriate spacing between letters, words, and sentences
- Correctly spell previously studied words, spelling patterns in written work
- Communicate ideas in writing using legible handwriting, punctuation, and capitalization
- Demonstrate effective oral communication
- Demonstrate attentive and responsive listening skills
- Begin to use cursive handwriting
- Creation of a writing portfolio containing at least 4 pieces of independent student writing (one from each quarter of the school year)
- Recognize rhyming words
- Spell grade level words accurately
- Capitalize letters for the first words in sentences, names of people and animals, months, days, holidays, places, personal titles, and titles of works
- Use knowledge of sound/letter relationships to read unknown words
- Identify statements, questions, commands, and exclamatory sentences
- Read compound words and contractions
- Select more precise words (synonyms, antonyms, adjectives, and descriptive words)
- Recognize nouns, verbs, and adjectives
- Identify parts of a letter
- Apply knowledge of word study (phonics, spelling, word structure, word meaning, and grammar) to read text with understanding and to communicate effectively through writing
Problem-solving is integrated throughout the second grade. The development of problem-solving skills is an essential goal at this grade level. Students have many opportunities to use the skills involved with computation, estimation, time, money, measurement, geometry, graphing, probability, and algebra to solve a wide variety of everyday problems.
Number and Numeration
- Count forward to 100 by 1s, 2s, 5s, 10s, 25s, and 100s (past 1000) and back by 1s from any number less than 1000 using mental math, paper and pencil, hundreds chart, and calculators
- Read, write, and model numbers up to 1,000
- Read and write money amounts in dollars-and cents notation
- Identify the place and value of the digits of a number up to 1,000
- Use manipulatives and drawings to make fractions as equal parts of a collection and name the fraction.
- Identify even and odd numbers
- Write Roman numerals to XX
- Round numbers to the nearest 100
- Recognize the relationships between two sets of objects or two numbers: same; equal to; different; not equal to; less than; fewer; smaller; greater than; more; larger
- Compare and order numbers up to 1,000
- Use models to compare fractions
- Identify ordinal positions-first, middle, and last through thirtieth
Operations and Computation
- Recall quickly and accurately addition and subtraction facts with +/-0, +/-1, +/- 10, and doubles
- Demonstrate knowledge of a strategy for adding and subtracting numbers
- Use manipulatives, number grids, tally marks, mental arithmetic, paper and pencil, and calculators to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of 2-digit numbers with regrouping and be able to state strategy used
- Identify "some, some more" and "some, some went away" situations
- Calculate and compare the values of combinations of coins
- Use repeated addition, arrays, and skip counting to model multiplication
- Use equal sharing and equal grouping to model division
- Make reasonable estimates for addition and subtraction problems and explain the strategy used
Data and Chance
- Collect and organize data to create tally charts, tables, line plots, and bar graphs
- Use graphs to answer simple questions and draw conclusions
- Find the maximum, minimum, mode, and median of a data set
- Describe events using certain, likely, unlikely, possible, impossible, and other basic probability terms
- Record the results of probability experiments
Measurement and Reference Frames
- Estimate and measure length to the nearest inch and centimeter
- Estimate and measure weight and capacity
- Count unit squares to find the area of rectangles
- Estimate and determine the perimeter of a figure
- Describe the relationships between days in a week and hours in a day
- Conduct investigations that build an understanding of balance and weight
- Identify standard measuring tools-length (ruler), weight (scale), temperature (thermometer)
- Identify and compare the value of pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters, and dollar bills
- Make exchange between coins
- Identify a thermometer as a tool for measuring temperature
- Read a temperature in Fahrenheit and Celsius to the nearest degree
- Tell and show time to the nearest five minutes on an analog clock
- Tell and write time in digital notation
- Determine elapsed time using a calendar
- Identify, describe, and compare plane and solid figures
- Identify sides, corners, edges, and faces of plane shapes and solid figures
- Create and complete two-dimensional symmetric shapes or designs
- Identify symmetry, congruence, and perimeter of plane shapes
Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
- Extend, describe, and create visual, rhythmic, numeric, and concrete patterns
- Solve equations for the missing addend
- Apply the commutative (a+b=b+a) and associative (a+b)+c=a+ (b+c) properties of addition
- Use the symbols +,-, =, <, and >
- Solve story problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
The second grade objectives focus on using a broad range of science skills in understanding the natural world. These skills include making detailed observations, asking questions, measuring, classifying, predicting, recording information, recognizing unusual or unexpected data, and drawing conclusions. Measurement in both English and metric units is stressed. The idea of living systems is introduced through habitats and the interdependence of living and nonliving things.
The concept of change is explored in states of matter, life cycles, weather patterns, and seasonal effects on plants and animals. Students will continue to develop an understanding of how scientists design and conduct experiments.
- Investigate and understand how different common materials interact with water
- Investigate and understand observable basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases
Habitats and Life Cycles
- Identify stages and describe changes in the life cycle of a frog, butterfly, and white-tailed deer
- Describe different habitats and identify living and non-living objects within each
- Predict and describe seasonal changes in a habitat and the affect on plant and animals
Living Things in the Natural World
- Investigate and understand that plants and animals go through a series of orderly changes in their life cycles
- Explain that plants produce oxygen and food, are a source of useful products, and provide benefits in nature
- Investigate and demonstrate knowledge that living things are a part of a system
- Investigate and demonstrate knowledge that weather and seasonal changes effect plants, animals, and their surroundings
- Identify characteristics that classify animals as mammal, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and insects
- Brainstorm ways to assist the earth through a group effort, followed by the participation in a recycling and/or a project assisting animals
Making Things Move
- Investigate and demonstrate knowledge that natural and artificial magnets have certain characteristics and attract specific types of metals
- Demonstrate ways to make objects move
- Predict how different poles of magnets will react to the poles of other magnets
- Investigate and demonstrate knowledge of basic weather conditions
- Plan and conduct scientific investigations about the weather
- Describe how tracking weather data overtime helps scientists make future weather predictions
- Construct a model of the water cycle
Respect for Self
- Identify basic nutrition and healthy eating habits
- Demonstrate knowledge of methods of safety (fire, earthquake, tornado, strangers)
In second grade, students are introduced to the heritage and contributions of historic groups of people throughout the world. In particular, they will study the contributions of ancient Egypt and China and their impact on world history. Students will also study various tribes of American Indians and learn about their culture and significance to American life.
Second graders will continue to develop their map skills and demonstrate enhanced understanding of basic economic concepts. Civics standards include the study of certain people in our history who have contributed to the rights of all individuals. The students will recognize that the United States is a land of people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who make contributions to their communities, and who are united as Americans by common principles.
- Identify the major contributions/inventions of ancient Egypt, including the 365 day calendar, papyrus, clock, mathematics, and architectural monuments (i.e. the Pyramids)
- Identify the major contributions of ancient China including silk, kites, the compass, bronze, fireworks, and architectural monuments (i.e. the Great Wall)
- Recognize samples of the written language of ancient Egypt (hieroglyphics) and ancient China (characters, symbols)
- Compare the tribes of Native-Americans in the Midwest with those from other regions in America
- Recognize American Indians as the first people in America and their importance to our history and our life today
- Recognize that the way people live today is different from the way people lived long ago
- Recognize how new inventions have led to changes in buildings, jobs, transportation, and populations of communities over time
- Demonstrate map skills by locating specific places on maps and globes
- Locate selected rivers on maps and globes
- Locate selected mountain ranges on a United States map
- Locate the Great Lakes on a United States map
- Demonstrate map skills by constructing simple maps
- Describe the difference between natural resources and capital resources
- Distinguish between the use of barter and money in the exchange for goods and services
- Demonstrate knowledge that scarcity requires people to make choices about producing and consuming goods and services
- Recognize that people make economic choices because resources and goods and services are scarce
- Explain the responsibilities of a good citizen
- Recognize that a good citizen respects and protects the rights and property of others
- Recognize that a good citizen takes part in the voting process when making classroom decisions
- Identify the contributions of George Washington Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Helen Keller, Jackie Robinson, and Martin Luther King Jr.
- Demonstrate knowledge that the people of Missouri have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, make contributions to their communities, and are united as Americans by common principles
- Explain that people share the principles of respecting and protecting the rights and property of others, participating in school and community activities, demonstrating self-discipline and self-reliance, and practicing honesty and trustworthiness
- Students will recognize that artists create works of art based on culture and life experiences
- Students will identify how the work of artists influences everyday life
- Students will recognize art as communication and expression
- Students will describe artwork using appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements and principles of design
- Students will be able to identify visual qualities of natural environment
- Students will be able to identify line, color, texture and shape in the environment
- Students will organize elements and principles of design to demonstrate compositional techniques
- Students will create works of art from imagination, real life experiences, to create a mood and as a form of self expression
- Students will create works of art that explore line quality, direction, rhythmic patterns, and visual emphasis
- Students will create paintings that utilize warm and cool colors/mixing of tints and shades
- Students will create works of art using mixed media and resist techniques
- Students will create prints using simple reliefs and collograph printing plates
- Students will create 3 dimensional works of art using paper, fibers and various materials
- Students will explore the properties of clay by creating coils, simple pinch forms and slabs
- Students will recognize, demonstrate, and assess good craftsmanship
- Students will view works of art in a variety of settings
- Students will identify that creativity is a gift from God
- Students will use art to praise God
- Sing in tune, matching pitch in a limited range (la-sol-mi, sol-mi-re-do) with appropriate singing posture.
- Demonstrate loud and soft dynamics and fast and slow tempi while singing.
- Sing a varied repertoire of songs, including patriotic (America), folk, seasonal, spirituals, and sacred music.
- Sing melodic ostinati and do and la centered pentatonic rounds canons.
- Sing in groups using a steady beat, matching dynamics, following cues of the conductor.
- INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMANCE
- Perform the following rhythmic patterns using standard or iconic notation: quarter note/rest, half note, and eighth note pairs.
- Echo play simple rhythmic patterns on rhythm instruments and or body percussion.
- Demonstrate loud and soft dynamics and fast and slow tempi.
- Demonstrate proper mallet technique.
- Perform in groups with various combinations of instruments, using a steady beat, matching dynamics, and following the cues of the conductor.
- Improvise simple rhythmic and melodic ostinati patterns.
- COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT
- Compose rhythmic or melodic motives within given parameters.
Elements of Music
- READ AND NOTATE MUSIC
- Read simple rhythm patterns (using iconic or standard notation) consisting of: quarter note/rest, eighth note pairs, and half note/rest.
- Identify melodies that move up, down, or stay the same.
- Identify mi, sol, and la scale tones and hand signs.
- Notate and transcribe from dictation short patterns of stick notation using half note, half rest, quarter note, quarter rest, and two-eighth notes.
- Notate and transcribe from dictation short melodic patterns using pitches from a mi-sol-la tone set.
- Read and identify materials with bar lines, double bar lines, repeat signs, and measures.
- Define tempo.
- SYMBOLS OF EXPRESSION
- Identify p for piano and f for forte.
- LISTEN, ANALYZE AND DESCRIBE MUSIC AND MUSICAL PERFORMANCES
- Identify basic forms and composition techniques including:
- repeated patterns (ostinati)
- repeat sign
- Demonstrate through movement differences between music opposites, including:
- beat/no beat
- repeated pattern (ostinati)
- Identify and label the four instrument families of the orchestra.
- Students identify the four families of the orchestra.
- Identify and label pitched and un-pitched percussion instruments.
- Listen to and identify music of different cultures
- EVALUATE MUSIC AND MUSICAL PERFORMANCES.
- Develop criteria to distinguish between quality and non-quality performances through listening and self-assessment with regard to the following musical elements: appropriate singing voice, loud/soft, steady beat, and posture/stage presence.
- Describe personal reaction to a selected work using grade level terminology. (Tempo)
- CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MUSIC AND OTHER DISCIPLINES
- Identify ways ideas are used differently in music, art, dance, or theatre.
- Compare and contrast the importance and role of music in various cultures, regions, and countries.
Historical and Cultural Concepts
- GENRES, STYLES AND STYLISTIC PRACTICES
- Identify characteristics of teacher-selected genres or styles and how elements of music are used:
- Native American
- African American
- Singing games
- Listen to and analyze Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf.
- Identify the main characters and the melodic theme associated with each character.
- FUNCTION AND ROLE OF MUSIC IN VARIOUS CULTURES
- Describe the function of music in various settings and cultural events:
- Native American
- African American
- Singing Games
- Discuss and demonstrate appropriate listening behavior for school assemblies, concerts, and school worship assemblies both as a performer and an audience member.
- CAREERS IN MUSIC
- Identify responsibilities of an accompanist and soloist.
Physical activity is critical to the development and maintenance of good health. At Holy Cross Academy the goal of the Physical Education and Health program is to develop physically educated individuals who have the knowledge, skills and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of healthful physical activity.
The Physical Education and Health program at Holy Cross Academy will be aligned with state requirements and guided by the six national standards for physical education. They are:
- Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns to perform a variety of physical activities.
- Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
- Participates regularly in physical activity.
- Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
- Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings.
- Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction.
A variety of activities will be provided, including team and individual games and fitness training/testing, which promote mental, social, and physical well-being. Areas that the program will be concentrating on include:
- Skill Development - Students will engage in activities that help to improve movement concepts, body management, loco motor movement and manipulative skills.
- Health Education - Students will address the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical dimensions of a healthy lifestyle.
- Fitness Education - Impart knowledge of physical fitness concepts, such as flexibility, muscular strength and agility and help students understand the importance of fitness in everyday life.
- Social Development - Students will exhibit perseverance, respect, responsible behavior and concern for others. Students will develop strategies to react to various situations, solve problems and make decisions.
Students of Holy Cross Academy are preparing for a world that is becoming smaller each day. Parents and educators understand the broad benefits received by learning a second language. By beginning early, the K-5 students of Holy Cross Academy will be prepared for the middle school curriculum, and later for the curriculum of the high school of their choice.
Students will learn communication through three modes: listening and speaking, reading and listening, and speaking and writing. They will learn about the practices and perspectives of culture. They will learn to make comparisons among cultures and languages. Eventually they will make connections that reinforce and further their knowledge of the disciplines taught through the HCA curriculum. All of these will help them develop as members of a shrinking world.
Students leverage technology to take an active role in choosing, achieving and demonstrating competency in their learning goals, informed by the learning sciences.
- With guidance from an educator, students consider and set personal learning goals and utilize appropriate technologies that will demonstrate knowledge and reflection of the process.
- With guidance from an educator, students learn about various technologies that can be used to connect to others or make their learning environments personal and select resources from those available to enhance their learning.
- With guidance from an educator, students recognize performance feedback from digital tools, make adjustments based on that feedback and use age-appropriate technology to share learning.
- With guidance from an educator, students explore a variety of technologies that will help them in their learning and begin to demonstrate an understanding of how knowledge can be transferred between tools.
Students recognize the rights, responsibilities and opportunities of living, learning and working in an interconnected digital world, and they act in ways that are safe, legal and ethical.
- Students practice responsible use of technology through teacher-guided online activities and interactions to understand how the digital space impacts their life.
- With guidance from an educator, students understand how to be careful when using devices and how to be safe online, follow safety rules when using the internet and collaborate with others.
- With guidance from an educator, students learn about ownership and sharing of information, and how to respect the work of others.
- With guidance from an educator, students demonstrate an understanding that technology is all around them and the importance of keeping their information private.
Students critically curate a variety of resources using digital tools to construct knowledge, produce creative artifacts and make meaningful learning experiences for themselves and others.
- With guidance from an educator, students use digital tools and resources, contained within a classroom platform or otherwise provided by the teacher, to find information on topics of interest.
- With guidance from an educator, students become familiar with age-appropriate criteria for evaluating digital content.
- With guidance from an educator, students explore a variety of teacher-selected tools to organize information and make connections to their learning.
- With guidance from an educator, students explore real-world issues and problems and share their ideas about them with others.
Students use a variety of technologies within a design process to solve problems by creating new, useful or imaginative solutions.
- With guidance from an educator, students ask questions, suggest solutions, test ideas to solve problems and share their learning.
- Students use age-appropriate digital and non-digital tools to design something and are aware of the step-by-step process of designing.
- Students use a design process to develop ideas or creations, and they test their design and redesign if necessary.
- Students demonstrate perseverance when working to complete a challenging task.
Students develop and employ strategies for understanding and solving problems in ways that leverage the power of technological methods to develop and test solutions.
- With guidance from an educator, students identify a problem and select appropriate technology tools to explore and find solutions.
- With guidance from an educator, students analyze age-appropriate data and look for similarities in order to identify patterns and categories.
- With guidance from an educator, students break a problem into parts and identify ways to solve the problem.
- Students understand how technology is used to make a task easier or repeatable and can identify real-world examples.
Students communicate clearly and express themselves creatively for a variety of purposes using the platforms, tools, styles, formats and digital media appropriate to their goals.
- With guidance from an educator, students choose different tools for creating something new or for communicating with others.
- Students use digital tools to create original works.
- With guidance from an educator, students share ideas in multiple ways—visual, audio, etc.
- With guidance from an educator, students select technology to share their ideas with different people.
Students use digital tools to broaden their perspectives and enrich their learning by collaborating with others and working effectively in teams locally and globally.
- With guidance from an educator, students use technology tools to work with friends and with people outside their neighborhood, city and beyond.
- With guidance from an educator, students use technology to communicate with others and to look at problems from different perspectives.
- With guidance from an educator, students take on different team roles and use age-appropriate technologies to complete projects.
- With guidance from an educator, students use age-appropriate technologies to work together to understand problems and suggest solutions.